History of SRC-FMBC
In the early post-war years, as a result of a sharp aggravation of the international situation - the outbreak of the cold war, because of the US atomic bomb, a task to create its own "nuclear shield" arose before our country.
In the late 40s of the XX century dozens of special design bureaus of scientific research institutes and enterprises are being formed to create the nuclear and other branches of the defense industry in the country.
New technologies for the extraction and processing of radioactive materials require the development and implementation of special environmental activities, the development of measures for the safety of working conditions, the prevention of occupational diseases and poisoning among employees of these enterprises.
It was therefore time for a scientific justification of norms and rules for radiation safety, dose limits and concentrations of various toxic substances, as well as the study of early specific signs and clinics of completely new occupational diseases and poisoning caused by radioactive substances.
To solve these problems in August 1947, in accordance with the Decree of the Government of the USSR, the Ministry of Health of the USSR established the 3rd Main Directorate (now the Federal Medical Biological Agency). In its system, special research institutes are organized in which the effects on the human body of radiation and other physical and chemical factors, as well as specialized medical facilities (medical and sanitary units), are studied for the treatment and rehabilitation of victims of radiation and other physical and chemical factors .
Avetik Burnasyan among the graduates of the Red Army Military Academy named after M.V. Frunze. Moscow, 1935.
Great scientists from various fields of medical and non-medical sciences, prominent organizers of public health and specially trained human resource from doctors and engineers were engaged in work at in the 3rd Main Directorate of the Ministry of Health of the USSR.
He was a creator of health care system for nuclear industry workers, the Hero of Socialist Labor, Laureate of the Lenin and State Prizes of the USSR, Chevalier of six Orders of Lenin, lieutenant general of medical service, Deputy Minister of Health of the USSR, who at the same time since 1954 headed the 3rd Main Directorate of the Ministry of Health of the USSR.
On the initiative of Avetik Burnasyan, by order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR dated September 25, 1948, No. 14, on the basis of the Moscow Neurosurgical Hospital for the Disabled of World War II, a closely held clinical hospital with 200 beds was set up to treat patients from institutions and enterprises of the nuclear industry. The hospital was named "Clinical Hospital of the Moscow Healthcare Department No. 6", later it was transferred to the Third Main Directorate under the Ministry of Health of the USSR (now - the Federal Medical Biological Agency). In May 1946, also on the initiative of Avetik Burnasyan, a radiation laboratory was created in the USSR to study the effect of radiation on the human body and to develop possible means of treating and protecting a person from the action of the radiation factor.
After 2 years (1948), the Institute of Biophysics of the Ministry of Health of the USSR (the 3rd Main Directorate under the Ministry of Health of the USSR) is created on its base. On December 19, 1994, the Institute of Biophysics was awarded the status of the State Research Center of the Russian Federation. Since its founding the Institute has been led by outstanding scientists: Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences Gleb Frank (1946-1951), Academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences Andrey Lebedinsky (1954-1962), Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR Petr Horizontov (1962-1968), Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, Laureate of the Lenin and State Prizes of the USSR and Russia, twice laureate of the Government of the Russian Federation Leonid Ilyin (1968-2008, present Honorary President of State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency).
Over time, the Institute of Biophysics is becoming one of the world's largest scientific centers, where formation and development of research works in the field of radiobiology and radiation medicine, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation hygiene under the leadership of such scientists as N.A. Kraevsky, A.V. Lebedinsky, M.N. Livanov, U.Ya. Margulis, Yu.I. Moskalev, L.B. Shagalov, L.A. Ilyin, B.B. Moroz, N.A. Kurshakov, A.I. Vorobiev, A.K. Guskova, G.D. Selidovkin, L.A. Buldakov, K.I. Gordeev, A.D. Turkin, S.M. Gorodinskii, N.G. Gusev, I.B. Keirim-Marcus, O.A. Kochetkov, V.G. Ryadov, K.I. Gordeev, V.V. Bochkarev, V.I. Levin, V.N. Korsunsky and others.
The result of the work of hygienists was several editions of the State Radiation Safety Standards and Principal Sanitary Radiation Safety Rules, more than a hundred monographs, thousands of articles, a set of sanitary norms and rules, hygienic standards, normative and methodical documents in practically all areas of ensuring radiation safety of personnel and population and for all objects of the NFC.
Dozens of specialists in radiation hygiene and personnel safety, since April 1986, have been directly involved in the work to eliminate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. They provided scientific and methodological guidance to the activities of radiation safety services on individual dosimetry, decontamination, organization of personal protection of personnel, psycho-physiological support, etc. The most valuable scientific data were obtained, the analysis and generalization of which allowed to develop practical recommendations for the prevention of radiation accidents and improving the preparedness of emergency response teams to eliminate the consequences of potential radiation accidents.
In 1948 the preparatory laboratory was established at the Institute of Biophysics for the development of domestic nuclear medicine technologies, later the department (since 2008 - the Department of Radiation Technology for Medical Applications), which until now is the leading developer of the newest radiopharmaceuticals (RP) for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and ensures the implementation of their preclinical and clinical trials. That is, a full cycle of works "from idea to a clinic" is carried out.
Specialists of the Institute of Biophysics made a significant contribution to the study of pathogenesis and clinics of radiation syndrome in animals and humans, the development of the foundations for the creation and synthesis of radioprotective drugs, the means for the prevention and treatment of radiation injuries and their consequences, the drugs that promote enhancing elimination of radioactive substances from the body, the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, as well as personal protective equipment.
Since the establishment of the Institute about 50 RPs have been developed, 20 RPs of which at present are constantly used in more than 200 clinics of the Russian Federation. It is primarily generators and preparations of technetium-99m, preparations of iodine-123, iodine-131, samarium-153 and other radionuclides. The latest trend in recent years is the development of the gallium-68 generator and the creation of preparations based on it for positron emission tomography. The development of these drugs is protected by several patents.
No less significant scientific and applied directions of the Institute were solving problems of maintenance of works, protection of personnel and population from exposure to special chemicals, as well as research in the field of radiobiology and hygiene of non-ionizing radiation of physical factors (such as electromagnetic radiation of different frequencies, infrasound and others), The study of the effect of these radiations on the human body.
Order No. 21c of the Minister of Health of the USSR from 17.09.51 established the Clinical Department of Radiation Medicine (Division No. 2) in the form of Sector No. 9 on the basis of the Institute of Biophysics of the Ministry of Health of the USSR and since 1960 Clinical Hospital No. 6. The corresponding member of Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR professor N.A. Kurshakov was appointed as the founder of the clinic and its first head (1951-1964). In the future the clinical department was directed by Ph.D., M.D., professor V.S. Smolensky (1964-1966), Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Professor A.I. Vorobyev (1966-1974), Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, professor A.K. Guskova (1974-1996), Ph.D., M.D., professor G.D. Selidovkin (1996-1999), Ph.D., M.D., professor A. Yu. Bushmanov (1999-2007), Ph.D. I.A. Galstyan (2007-2008). From 2008 to the present time - Ph.D., M.D., professor V.I. Krasnyuk. The first patients, exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation when working in the Institute of Atomic Energy I.V. Kurchatov, arrived in September 1953, another group of people with acute radiation sickness arrived on 11 March 1954 from State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation – Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A. I. Leypunsky, Obninsk.
The Chernobyl disaster is a special page in the history of the Institute of Biophysics and Clinical Hospital No. 6.
From the first hours after the disaster scientists, doctors, specialists of emergency teams arrived in Chernobyl and organized the sorting and evacuation of the worst-affected victims to Clinical Hospital No. 6, where under the guidance and with direct involvement of the clinical department of the Institute of Biophysics, the victims received highly skilled medical care and the necessary volume of complex studies on the dose assessment of exposure of victims by methods developed was carried out by the staff of the Institute. Experience in the Chernobyl problem has been covered in many scientific publications.
In the 1990s the Institute of Biophysics and Clinical Hospital No. 6 began to lose their advanced, previously acquired positions in the Russian Federation in further advance of scientific and clinical research on health effects of exposure in connection with the difficult situation in the field of financing of national science and health care. As a result, it was decided to combine the scientific and clinical capabilities of the two leading organizations of the Federal Medical Biological Agency: the Institute of Biophysics and Clinical Hospital No. 6 named after Avetik Burnasyan in a single Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center (Governmental Decree of the Russian Federation No. 894 of December 27, 2007).
The past years have shown the propriety and accuracy of combining the scientific and practical capabilities of these Institutions.
Remembering and honoring the glorious past, bowing before our teachers and mentors, State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency develops. The Institute has taken a leading position in Russia and became the leading research organization in the field of studying the mechanisms of the effects on the human body of ionizing and nonionizing factors, as well as the prevention and treatment of personnel in particularly hazardous industries in the nuclear and other industrial sectors; The scientific and personnel potential is growing, the range of scientific areas is expanding, taking into account overall trends of medical science in Russia and the world, such as biomedical technologies, transplantation of donor organs and human tissues, personalized and predictive medicine and many others.