Russian State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency is a powerful research and clinical cluster in the system of the Federal Medical Biological Agency. SRC-FMBC is a flagship institution of Public Health of the Russian Federation in the field of biophysics, radiation and nuclear medicine and safety, surgery and transplantology, neurosurgery, hematology, oncology, urology and andrology, neurology and neurorehabilitation, resuscitation, and modern methods of diagnosis of diseases and innovative biomedical technologies.
The history of establishment and development of the Center characterizes the main development trends of the industry over the last 70 years.
Challenges of the twentieth century, nuclear power industry, creation of the atomic bomb demanded from our country to organize work on medical and hygienic support of this problem. Since 1946, this direction was headed by the Institute of Biophysics of the Ministry of Health of the USSR (currently State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency). Over the 70-year period of the history the main principles of national radiation hygiene and medicine, individual dosimetry of ionizing radiation, radiation safety have been substantiated by the scientists of the Center for the first time. A unique computer database on acute radiation injuries has been created, including 2/3 of the world experience, the pathogenesis and various forms of the person's acute radiation injuries have been studied in detail, and a scheme for its treatment has been developed and adopted. Modern highly effective preparations for the prevention and treatment of radiation injuries (indralin, betaleucine, desoxynatum, latranum, ferrocin, potassium iodide, group of complexons, etc.) have been developed and introduced into practice. The approaches to the evaluation of the indications and timing of necrectomies, timely prosthetics and plastic surgery of local radiation lesions are specified, highly effective combined treatment with mesenchymal stem cells is developed.
Approaches to the assessment of indication and terms of necrectomy, timely prosthesis and plastic surgery of local radiation injuries were defined, highly effective combined treatment with mesenchymal stem cells was developed.
For render outstanding services to the nation in the field of radiation safety in the civil and military sphere, establishing fundamental and practical foundations of radiation medicine, the Center was awarded the highest award of the country in 1977 - the Order of Lenin.
The leading role of the Center in the field of radiation medicine was recognized by the world community in 1997 it was given the status of a WHO Collaborating Center on this issue.
Employees of the center in the 60s of the last century laid the foundations of radiotherapy in our country, developed schemes, doses of radiation therapy, and thoroughly studied the prevention of radiation complications. At present, the only department of tele- and combined radiotherapy in the FMBA system is operating at the Center, equipped with a linear accelerator for radiosurgical and stereotactic radiation.
State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency is a pioneer in bone marrow transplantation, so in 1975 under the guidance of professor Alexander Baranov conducted the first allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in the USSR with total therapeutic dressing in the conditioning regime. In 1982, for the first time in our country within the walls of the center, peripheral stem hemopoietic cells harvesting was conducted. At present, the Department of Hematology is one of the leading institutions in Russia for the treatment of oncohematological diseases working according to international standards.
For the adequate response of FMBA of Russia to emergency situations in 1999 on the basis of State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency was established Emergency Medical Radiation-Dosimetry Center, which task is to solve a set of medical and radiation-hygiene tasks in case of radiation accidents at the appropriate facilities, as well as the organization of its interaction with Rosatom, medical services of ministries and departments. Experts actively participate in the work of the international group of experts on the issues of the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism. The experience of the specialists of the center turned out to be in demand in the world community after the radiation accidents in Goiania (Brazil, 1987), Takamura (Japan, 1999), Leah (Georgia, 2002), Fukushima (Japan, 2011), where consultations, thousands of test, research and control measurements, as well as medical examinations were conducted.
An invaluable contribution of doctors State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency in the liquidation of the consequences of the catastrophes of the 21st century: as part of summary medical teams of rapid response to provide medical support during the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict, the accident at Raspadskaya mine, Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station, the fire at the Khromaya Loshad in Perm, the flooding in Krymsk, Transbaikal Kray and many other situations.
It should be specially noted that in State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency almost all drugs used today in the Russian departments of radionuclide diagnosis and therapy were developed. And now our Center is the leading institution in the field of creating innovative tools and technologies for modern nuclear medicine.
Since 2008 the Canine Center has functioned to ensure security at strategically important facilities managed by the FMBA of Russia, participate in the work to eliminate emergency situations of natural and man-made disasters, and interact with law enforcement and security forces.
Multidisciplinary Laboratory of State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, established in 2011, is the only scientific division in Russia in sports medicine that develops new methods and approaches in medical and biological support to athletes of Russian national teams and their immediate reserve. One of the results of this work was the successful medical support of the Russian national team at the Olympic Games in Sochi. The possibilities of a multidisciplinary laboratory in combination with the professional experience of the Center's experts in working with top-ranking athletes allow State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency to remain in the forefront in the current severe competition in the field of sports medicine and sports rehabilitation.
From 2013 on the basis of State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency the Coordination Center of organ donation of the Federal Medical Biological Agency successfully functions. During the work of the Center, a unified system for coordination of human organ and tissue donation has been formed, covering medical organizations of the FMBA of Russia and medical organizations of a number of the Russian Federation subjects. The coordinating center of organ donation of the FMBA of Russia is a scientific and practical base for the training of (intensivist) anesthesiologists-reanimatologists and surgeons in the basics of transplant coordination, organ donation and transplantology. An effective system of distribution of harvested human organs and tissues and their interregional transportation to the transplantation centers of the Russian Federation was created.
One of the successful examples of the work of the Coordination Center for organ donation of the FMBA of Russia is the organization of the donor stage of the first successful soft tissue transplantation in Russia, performed in 2015 to a serviceman who suffered during military service.
In recent years, specialists of the Center for Biomedical Technologies of State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency have developed a number of unique technologies, which are currently at the stage of completing clinical trials. These include: treatment of various skin lesions (burns, trophic ulcers, postoperative scars and age-related changes), treatment of acute ischemic damage of the brain, restoration of damaged ligaments and articular cartilage (torns, fractures, osteoarthritis, etc.), evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs. Methods of regenerative medicine are actively used in surgical operations as maintenance treatment for patients waiting for organ transplantation, increasing the effectiveness of traditional treatment schemes. Studies conducted by our team meet the highest international standards and rules, are registered in relevant international databases. Conducting scientific research is an important and integral part of the process of developing an innovative method of treatment or biomedical product.
One of the promising fields of regenerative medicine is the creation of a biological bank of stem cells and tissues. This approach is able to provide an indefinitely long conservation of active stem cells in any great amount, which can be used in case of the development of a pathological process. At the same time it is possible to create a bank of "universal" allogenic cellular products that do not possess antigenic properties and are suitable for clinical use to any person. Research is actively conducted on the creation of artificial organs and tissues. Tissue engineering organs and tissues were designed, which fully correspond by their properties to native ones. At present time preclinical studies on animals are actively conducted. Pre-clinical studies are conducted to develop new radiopharmaceuticals for the labeling of stem cells for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer and other various diseases for further clinical use.
At the Institute of Continuing Vocational Education of State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency postgraduate education of medical workers at 20 departments successfully carried out, some of which are unique and are related to the specifics of the work of the FMBA of Russia: the Department of Radiation Medicine, Occupational Safety, Radiation, Chemical Safety and Protection, Radiochemistry and Technology of Radiopharmaceuticals and others.
For 70 years of work the staff of State Research Center − Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency published thousands of scientific papers summarizing the accumulated experience and new developments in the field of the main activities of the Center, a number of which have been translated into major world languages and are located in the libraries of the world's leading countries.